Research Studies

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES), Chi, Homeostasis, and the Bioelectrical System by Charles McCusker, Ph.D., Nicholas Mason, Ph.D., Eldon Taylor, Ph.D., and Laurence Paros, Ph.D.

A Summary Look at CES Studies of Addiction by Ray Smith, Ph.D.

A Summary Look at CES Studies of Anxiety by Ray Smith, Ph.D.

A Summary Look at CES Studies of Cognitive Function by Ray Smith, Ph.D.

A Summary Look at CES Studies of Depression by Ray Smith, Ph.D.

A Summary Look at CES Sleep Studies by Ray Smith, Ph.D.

CES in the Treatment of Stress Related Cognitive Dysfunction with an Eighteen Month Follow-up by Ray Smith, Ph.D.

CES Possible Mechanisms of Action by Ray Smith, Ph.D.

Phoenix House Pilot Summary: A retrospective chart review of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for clients newly admitted to residential drug treatment by David A. Deitch, Ph.D., Jennifer Butler, B.S., Charles A. Fisher, Sidney Hargrave, M.A., Norman John. (2009)

Phoenix House Client Comments - Cranial Electro Meditation Report

Potential and Current Density Distributions of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) in a Four-Concentric-Spheres Model by Mohammed Ferd-jallah, Francis X. Bostick, Jr., and Ronald E. Barr. (1996)

Noninvasive Brain Stimulation with Low-Intensity Electrical Currents: Putative Mechanisms of Action for Direct and Alternating Current Stimulation by Soroush Zaghi, Mariana Acar, Brittney Hultgren, Paulo S. Boggio, and Felipe Fregni. Harvard Medical School Study. (2009)

Liss Gathering Effect - Modulated Electric Energy Stimulators by Saul Liss, Ph.D. and Bernard Liss. (2009)

Liss Body Stimulator – Waveform Analysis

Liss Stimulators Application Notes --- Monopolar/Biopolar

Brain and Behavior - Effects of CES on Resting State Brain Activity (2012)

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Efficacy of CES for the treatment of insomnia: a randomized pilot study by R. Gregory Landea and Cynthia Gragnanib (2013)

A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder by A. Bystritsky., L. Kerwin, J. Feusner (2008)

Pain reduction using transcranial electrostimulation: a double blind "active placebo" controlled trial by Lidia Gabis, Bentzion Shklar, Yael Kesner Baruch, Raanan Raz, Eddy Gabis, and Daniel Geva (2009)

Noninvasive brain stimulation with low-intensity electrical currents: putative mechanisms of action for direct and alternating current stimulation by Soroush Zaghi, Mariana Acar, Brittney Hultgren, Paulo S. Boggio, and Felipe Fregni (2010)

Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and transcranial pulsed current stimulation: A computer based high-resolution modeling study by Abhishek Datta, Jacek P. Dmochowski, Berkan Guleyupoglu, Marom Bikson, Felipe Fregni (2013)

Non-invasive electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) modifies the resting-state network connectivity of the primary motor cortex: A proof of concept fMRI study by G. Alona, S.R. Roysb, R.P. Gullapallib, J.D. Greenspanc (2011)

Safety and Immediate Effect of Noninvasive Transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation on Gait and Balance in Parkinson Disease by Gad Alon, Don A. Yungher, Lisa M. Shulman, and Mark W. Rogers (2012)

Broad Range Database Literature Search Results

CES Medline Search with Abstracts (May 2006) by Konstantine Balakatounis, PT

Nicholas Mason, Ph.D. of Coral Gables, Florida

Dr. Mason's book Following Your Treasure Map is a great adjunct for working with CES. It can be ordered through Random House's Xlibris division at 888-795-4274 or online at or

Case Studies/Vignettes

James' Story – October 9, 2012 - Child with high-functioning autism.

"Bob" - May 20, 2004